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Signalment: 5-year female Springer spaniel
Tetraparesis progressing to recumbency over 2 days
dog was stuporous with vertical nystagmus, absent gag reflex and drooling
no voluntary movement seen in the thoracic limbs; reduced voluntary movement in the pelvic limbs
reduced spinal reflexes in thoracic limbs
See images below. Click to enlarge.
Generalised slight dilatation of the ventricular system
marked dilatation of the fourth ventricle impinging on cerebellum and brain stem
swelling and diffuse, poorly marginated T2 hyperintensity affecting the cervical spinal cord
no enhancement after gadolinium
flow artifact in the mesencephalic aqueduct (hyperintense in T1- and hypointense in T2-weighted images)
CSF analysis is indicated as a means of confirming diagnosis; however, increased intracranial pressure is a contraindication to puncture of cerebellomedullary cistern; a lumbar puncture should be considered instead.
Examples of errors by candidates:
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